After 1.e4 e5 we have the so-called Open Games. Sublines: Ruy Lopez, Italian Game, Two Knights, Four Knights, Scotch, Petroff Defence, Vienna Game, Philidor Defence, King's Gambi
After 1.d4 too, the most solid reply is the symmetrical (1...d5) and so it is extremely popular. White can then choose the Queen’s Gambit by playing 2.c4, whereas all other continuations are classified as Queen’s Pawn Games.
In 1843 in a match, which was unofficially considered a world championship, the English master Howard Staunton (1810–1874) played 1.c4 against French player Pierre Saint-Amant (1800–1872). Since then this move has been known as the English Opening.