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After 1.e4 e5 we have the so-called Open Games. Sublines: Ruy Lopez, Italian Game, Two Knights, Four Knights, Scotch, Petroff Defence, Vienna Game, Philidor Defence, King's Gambi
If after 1.e4 Black does not play 1...e5, then we have the Semi-open Openings. These include the Sicilian (c5), the French (e6) and the Caro-Kann (c6), the Alekhine Defence (Nf6), the Scandinavian Defence (d5) and the Pirc Defence (d6 or g6)
After 1.d4 too, the most solid reply is the symmetrical (1...d5) and so it is extremely popular. White can then choose the Queen’s Gambit by playing 2.c4, whereas all other continuations are classified as Queen’s Pawn Games.
If Black does not reply symmetrically to 1.d4 by moving his own d-pawn, what arise are the Semi-closed Openings. These comprise for a large part the Indian Openings (Nf6) but alsoDutch Defence (f5)and other moves such as e6 and g6.
In 1843 in a match, which was unofficially considered a world championship, the English master Howard Staunton (1810–1874) played 1.c4 against French player Pierre Saint-Amant (1800–1872). Since then this move has been known as the English Opening.
In addition to the main two moves 1.e4 and 1.d4, there are also 1.c4 and 1.Nf3 which are considered very solid and respectable ways to start the game. But White can also permit himself to start with 1.b3, 1.g3 or even 1.f4 or 1.b4.